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ALLENVI - COP 21

60 RESEARCH SUCCESS STORIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE PLANET

48

49

WHAT

Reusing CO

2

to reduce

emissions

The VASCO project dedicated to

reusing and storing CO

2

is studying

ways to reuse the CO

2

emitted by

industrial activity in the Fos-sur-Mer

basin, in order to reduce greenhouse

gases emissions into the atmosphere by

reuse of purified CO

2

in industry, acid

gas injection into oil fields to optimize

their yields, or geological disposal in

the saline aquifers of the PACA region.

Following initial research (2011-2012),

a new promising avenue opened up:

CO

2

absorption via microalgae

photosynthesis. This is the subject

of the VASCO 2 project (2015-2018),

which will implement a marine algae

production system over several

hectares in the Mediterranean.

The food or transport energy markets

could be targeted.

IFREMER

Breakthrough technology

Biorare won the 2011 call for ‘Biotechnolo-

gy and bio-resources’ projects of the French

Investing in the Future programme, launched

using a ‘National Loan’. It is based on a tech-

nological breakthrough: microbial electrosyn-

thesis, which is the production of organic

compounds by the reduction of carbon diox-

ide, performed by microorganisms fixed to the

cathode of an electrochemical cell. This pro-

cess uses a bioelectrochemical system (BES).

Use of this technique for processing

organic waste has the advantage of combining

waste treatment by oxidation with the produc-

tion of useful molecules. This can be physical-

ly separated from the synthesis of chemicals

of biological origin. It is therefore easier to

recover the biomolecules and there is a lower

risk of contamination.

Thanks to the National Loan and collab-

oration with major industry players, who are

convinced by the possibilities of the project,

technical, environmental, economic and ac-

ceptability specifications can be drawn up,

with a view to preparing for future industri-

al roll-out.

//

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

A. Bridier, E. Desmond-Le Quemener,

L. Rouillac, C. Madigou, E. Blanchet,

B. Erable, A. Bergel, A. Carmona,

E. Trably, N. Bernet, L. Aissani, L. Giard,

L. Renvoise, A. Bize, L. Mazeas,

T. Bouchez. 2014.

COMBINATION OF

BIOANODE AND BIOCATHODE FOR

THE CONVERSION OF WASTES

INTO BIOCOMMODITIES USING

MICROBIAL ELECTROSYNTHESIS.

Slurries for heat transfer

What fluids will be used for heat

transfer in future refrigeration plants?

Research is advancing on various

water-based, salt-based or

glycol-based ‘slurry’ type fluids

(ice slurries, hydrate slurries and

paraffin slurries) for heat transfer

without environmental impact.

These processes are currently fitted

to refrigeration plants with very

convincing results, including energy

savings, absence of toxic fluids, etc.

IRSTEA

Inventing the refrigeration

of the future

The food cold chain is responsible

for 8% of global energy

consumption and 2.5% of

greenhouse gases emissions.

The 26 partners of the European

FRISBEE project are therefore

investigating refrigeration of

the future, with successful

developments such as magnetic

refrigeration that uses no fluid

coolant, or the use of

phase-change materials that

reduce energy consumption.

IRSTEA

Methanation on farms

Methanation on farms produces

sustainable, renewable energy which

limits the use of fossil fuels that emit

greenhouse gases. Research on mix

optimization is currently seeking to

achieve collective methanation which

uses all the products of an area. In

collaboration with a small business,

researchers have developed a

method for implementing a system

across an entire geographical area,

while minimizing the environmental

impacts. This type of system is

already being organized in Brittany.

IRSTEA

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I

n the fuels and petrochemicals sector,

finding an alternative to fossil energies was

for a long time in the realm of the impossi-

ble. But never say never! Researchers have

developed an innovative project in this field,

known as Biorare, which is based on the

electrosynthesis of platform molecules. This re-

search programme produces simple organic

molecules by the microbial electrosynthesis of

organic waste. This is a good way of reusing

the 30 million metric tonnes of household waste

produced each year in France.

Use of this bio-resource is a major step

forward on many levels. Firstly, it allows signif-

icant savings in fossil resources, reserves of

which are depleting every day. Secondly, the

raw material, which is organic waste (house-

hold, food, green and agricultural waste), is

inexpensive and widely available, because we

all produce it in large quantities. Finally, this

resource is renewable and will ultimately

replace petroleum products, which are sub-

ject to international markets and harmful for

the environment.

Microbes fueled by waste

Organic waste is an innovative, green and widely available bio-resource, and a major

asset for future energy. The Biorare project, led by French scientists and funded

by the government’s Investing in the Future programme, uses biomass in the place of

petroleum products. This reuse system is a serious option for the future of the planet.

IRSTEA ࠮ CNRS ࠮ INRA

ORGANIC WASTE

A NEW BIO-RESOURCE

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FRANCE

ENERGY

at a glance